||Main threats include the aquafarming of invasive tilapia, toxics from opencast mining, aerial fertilizing, fumigating, and urban wastewater.
Commercial fishing targeting largetooth sawfish has caused a large decline in populations since 1970. Meat derived from these fish is consumed domestically and exported overseas. The Bull Shark (Carcharhinus leucas), which migrates between the Caribbean Sea and Lake Cocibolca is also being overexploited.
Other threats include sedimentation from logging, road construction, and makeshift settlements in urban areas.
Mining has caused the loss of aquatic and riparian habitats, and the disappearance of numerous species of fish, mammals, birds and invertebrates.